1-day Free eBook promo-Major Harriet M. West

A Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACS) would probably have been dismissed out of hand except it was 1941 and the country was engaged in a World War requiring all of the country’s resources.   By the end of World War II in 1945 there were 265,000 women in uniform, of them more than 6,000 were African-American women.

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Harriet M. West became the first, Black major in the U.S. Women’s  Army Corps on August 21, 1943.  Once promoted to that rank she became an aide to WAAC Director, Oveta Culp Hobby and an advisor to the army on racial issues. West, and Major Charity Adams were the only black women to attain the rank of major during World War II.

In commemoration of Major West’s accomplishment 70 years ago, I am offering my eBook:  Long Way Home:  A World War II Novel  for FREE at the Amazon and Kindle bookstores on August 21, 2013.   Please click on the book cover to access the free offer.  I hope you’ll enjoy the read!

Book Cover

Fort Huachuca-Home of the African American Soldier

Note:  This post was corrected on December 4, 2013.  The previous post erroneously listed Ft. Huachuca’s acreage.   In actuality, during WWII the base was more than 71,000 acres and today is some 73,000 acres.   Thanks to  Major General (retired) John M. Custer for the correction.

Two-thirds of my work of fiction, Long Way Home:  A World War II Novel is set on a 73,000-acre, army base in southeast Arizona that still operates today as an army installation.

Fort Huachuca has been significant in the training of black soldiers since the late 19th century and during World War II served the largest concentration of African-American (Negro) soldiers.

SoldiersatHuachuca

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Introducing: Private First Class, Georgette Newton (Part 1)

One of the two, key protagonists in my novel Long Way Home:  A World War II Novel (formerly Home Front) is Georgette Lillian Newton a twenty-one year old, North Carolina farm girl who leaves home to become one of only about 6,000 African American members of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACS).

Maj. Charity E. Adams and Cpt. Abbie N. Campbell inspect women of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion, the first Negro WAACS to be sent overseas

The WAACS played an integral and successful role in America’s military presence during World War II but the path to their involvement was a bumpy one.  Public opinion about female soldiers was initially negative and the initial bill authorizing the WAACS failed in Congress.  It was not until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 that American military leadership saw the wisdom of adding new personnel to the war effort.

The law activating the WAACS was passed in May 1942 “for the purpose of making available to the national defense the knowledge, skill, and special training of the women of the nation.”  A recruitment goal of 25,000 was established but enrollment quickly eclipsed that goal and a final ceiling of 150,000 was authorized by Secretary of the War Henry L. Stimson. 

The first Director of the WAACS (later shortened to WACS when the corps traded its auxiliary status for a permanent one) was Oveta Culp Hobby, a former War Department employee who advocated for the WAAC Bill.  Hobby’s general idea for the WAACS was that they be trained as non-combatants to take on positions that would free a male soldier for battle.

July 20, 1942, 440 women began officer candidate training at Fort Des Moines (over 35,000 women applied for the training).  The four-week basic training of the first auxiliaries (enlisted women) began in August.   Note: Forty black women trained as officers were placed in a separate platoon.  They attended classes and ate with the other officer candidates but base facilities were segregated. Continue reading

First Waves of Freedom

350,000 women served in the military during World War II, of these 150,000 were members of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACS) led by the service’s first director, Oveta Culp Hobby.

African American WAACS at Ft. DesMoines

The eligibility requirements were straightforward:  each woman must be a U.S. citizen, 21-45 years of age with no dependents, at least 5 ft. tall and weighing a minimum of 100 pounds.

The service of these women was a critical element of the U.S. war effort.   They took on jobs in the military that would free service men to be on the front lines.  Primarily they worked in clerical jobs, in medical units, in the motor pool, as radio operators, in military post offices and as  cryptographers.

The WAACS were the first of these services to allow Black service women (1942).   Forty black women who entered the first WAAC officer candidate class were placed in a separate platoon; most had attended college.

But the transition of women in the military 70 years ago was not easy or smooth.    By early 1943, the number of women joining the WAACS dropped dramatically due to a backlash of public opinion against women in the armed forces.  84% of letters received by the families of male soldiers were critical of WAACS.

Still, America’s World War II service women played an important role in the war.   Some women served in combat zones, were held as prisoners of war in the Philippines, conducted undercover operations, and sacrificed their lives.

For more information about women in the U. S. military during World War II  check out the National Women’s History Museum “Partners in Winning the War” web page at:

http://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/partners/exhibitentrance.html

And the archive at the University of North Carolina-Greensboro The Betty H. Carver Women Veterans Historical Project at:

http://library.uncg.edu/dp/wv/conflict/?c=2

An excellent bibliography on the WWII service of black women in the military “We Served America Too” is available at:

http://www.howard.edu/library/moorland-spingarn/WWII.HTM

STATISTICS

    • 150,000 WAACs served during WWII; 6,520 African American WAACS
    • 35,000 women applied for WAACS officer’s training school
    • The first WAAC training center was at Ft. Desmoines training began in 1942..
    • Successful service of WAACS led to a permanent corps in 1948 with the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act; but not until the 1970s were women fully assimilated into the army
    • 100,000 women were members of the Navy’s WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency)
    • The Airforce also had a contingent of women service members called Women Airforce Service Pilots or WASPs.

Cheryl Head’s first novel, Home Front, is the story of two, black World War II soldiers (one a WAAC) serving in a segregated Army base near Tucson, Arizona.    It is a love story.



 

 

Book Summary

I’ve been writing Homefront for several years.   At its essence, it is a story of discovery of self.  Set in the middle years of World War II, Homefront introduces two main characters: 20-year-old, Georgette Lillian Newton from rural North Carolina and a member of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, and LeRoy Dowdell, an 18-year-old Army enlistee from a small town in Georgia.   We follow these two, young southerners as their dreams and ambitions propel them to join the Army where they meet and fall in love.   Along the way, the reader also meets Private First Class, Pit Turner and his nemesis Staff Sergeant, Robert Moses.  The four cope with the tensions and indignities of a segregated army experience on a base near Tucson, Arizona and, ultimately, find truth and acceptance in their separate acts of courage.

WAACS at Ft. Huachuca in Arizona

More to come…